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Glossary

This glossary contains key terms used by the Finnish Immigration Service on its website, and their definitions. The definitions do not always follow the legislation word for word, which is why, for more formal definitions, you should get acquainted with the relevant legislation and other source material.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V X Y Z

alien’s passport
fi muukalaispassi
sv främlingspass

A travel document that can be issued to a foreign national if he or she cannot obtain a passport from the authorities of his or her home country, or if he or she has no citizenship, or if there are other special reasons for issuing an alien’s passport to him or her. Foreign nationals who have been granted a residence permit on the basis of subsidiary protection are issued with an alien’s passport. An alien’s passport is not an official identity document. See subsidiary protection. Cf. refugee travel document.

assisted voluntary return
fi avustettu vapaaehtoinen paluu
sv assisterad frivillig återresa

Assisted voluntary return refers to an arrangement where a third-country national who has applied for international protection, a beneficiary of temporary protection, a victim of human trafficking or a person who has been granted a residence permit under section 51 of the Aliens Act can receive assistance and compensation for travel and relocation costs to his or her home country or another country. A further requirement is that the applicant must leave the country voluntarily and with permanent intent after having cancelled his or her application or after the application has been rejected. See international protection, third-country national, temporary protection. Cf. voluntary return.

asylum
fi turvapaikka
sv asyl

A residence permit issued to a foreign national under the asylum procedure on the basis of his or her refugee status. See refugee.

asylum interview
fi turvapaikkapuhuttelu
sv asylsamtal

The purpose of an asylum interview is to establish the grounds for an asylum application. The asylum interview is conducted by the Finnish Immigration Service.

asylum investigation
fi turvapaikkatutkinta
sv asylutredning

A procedure in which the Finnish Immigration Service or the Border Guard first establishes the identity and travel route of the asylum seeker and whether his or her application can be processed in Finland. After that, the Finnish Immigration Service interviews the applicant in order to establish the grounds for his or her asylum application. See asylum interview.

asylum seeker
fi turvapaikanhakija
sv asylsökande

A person who seeks protection and right of residence in a foreign state. An asylum seeker is granted refugee status if he or she is granted asylum. See asylum, refugee.

birthplace principle
fi syntymämaaperiaate
sv territorialprincipen, födelselandsprincipen

A principle according to which a child acquires citizenship on the basis of the place of birth (ius soli). The birthplace principle is a secondary principle in the Finnish Nationality Act. Cf. parentage principle, inheritance principle.

citizenship, nationality
kansalaisuus
sv medborgarskap

Citizenship means a legislative bond between an individual and a state determining the individual’s status in the state as well as the basic rights and duties existing between the individual and the state.

citizenship application
fikansalaisuushakemus
sv medborgarskapsansökan

A foreign national may be granted Finnish citizenship on application if the requirements laid down in the Nationality Act are met. Exceptions may be made as provided in the Act. Cf. citizenship declaration.

citizenship declaration
fi kansalaisuusilmoitus
sv medborgarskapsanmälan

Certain groups of people may acquire Finnish citizenship by declaration. These groups are specified in the Nationality Act. Cf. citizenship application.

continuous residence permit
fi jatkuva oleskelulupa
sv kontinuerligt uppehållstillstånd

A fixed-term residence permit. The permit is issued to a foreign national who has arrived in Finland with the intention of permanent immigration. The permit must be renewed before the validity period expires. A continuous residence permit bears the letter A. Cf. temporary residence permit.

country/state of nationality
fi kansalaisuusvaltio
sv medborgarskapsland

The country of which a person holds citizenship. See citizenship, nationality.

deportation
fi karkottaminen
sv utvisning

Procedure for removing a person from the country. When a foreign national has been issued with a residence permit but a decision is made to remove the person from the country, he or she will be deported. Cf. refusal of entry.

detention
fi säilöönotto
sv tagande i förvar, förvarstagande

An interim measure, means of monitoring. A foreign national may be held in detention if there are grounds to believe that he or she will, for example, hide in order to avoid refusal of entry or deportation. An asylum seeker can be held in detention if it is necessary to establish his or her identity.

determination of citizenship status
fi kansalaisuusaseman määrittäminen
sv bestämmande av medborgarskapsstatus

In unclear situations, the Finnish Immigration Service establishes the citizenship the person is considered to hold in Finland. See also citizenship, nationality.

dual/multiple nationality/citizenship
fi kaksoiskansalaisuus/monikansalaisuus
sv dubbelt/flerfaldigt medborgarskap

A person may be a citizen of two or several countries.

Dublin procedure
fi Dublin-menettely
sv Dublinförfarande

The Dublin procedure is based on the EU Dublin Regulation and is carried out to determine the state responsible for examining an asylum application. The member states of the EU as well as Norway, Iceland, Switzerland and Liechtenstein apply the Regulation. Another country can be responsible for examining an application if the asylum seeker, for example, has family ties, a residence permit or a visa in another country applying the Regulation. Another country is also responsible for examining an application if the asylum seeker’s fingerprints have been entered in the Eurodac system after an illegal crossing of the external border of the EU. The country where an asylum seeker has previously sought asylum can also be responsible for examining the application. See European Union (EU), asylum.

emergency cases
fi hätätapaukset
sv akuta fall

Persons who the UN refugee agency UNHCR considers to be refugees in need of urgent resettlement, often due to their personal safety or health. These persons are admitted into the country on the basis of UNHCR’s documents without being interviewed by the Finnish authorities. The emergency cases that are admitted into Finland are a part of the yearly refugee quota. In recent years, the yearly number of emergency cases in Finland has been 100. See also quota refugee.

emigrant; migrant
fi maastamuuttaja
sv utvandrare

A person who moves from a country (Finland). Cf. immigrant; migrant.

(ethnic) nationality, ethnic origin
fi kansallisuus
sv nationalitet

Ethnic background. Belonging to a specific nation or a group of people (e.g. Ingrian Finns, Kurds, Roma). Ethnic nationality has a different meaning than citizenship. For instance, a person of Kurdish ethnic origin may hold Finnish citizenship. Cf. citizenship, nationality.

EU Blue Card
EU:n sininen kortti
sv EU-blåkort

A residence permit intended for a third-country national who comes to an EU member state for highly qualified employment. See third-country national.

EU citizen or a comparable person
EU-kansalainen ja häneen rinnastettava
sv EU-medborgare och en därmed jämförbar person

A citizen of a member state in the European Union (EU) or in Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway or Switzerland. EU citizens have the right to move freely within the territory of the Union. The provisions on free movement also apply to citizens of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway based on the EEA Agreement, as well as to citizens of Switzerland based on a separate agreement with the EU. See European Union (EU), European Economic Area (EAA).

European Economic Area (EEA)
fi Euroopan talousalue (ETA)
sv Europeiska ekonomiska samarbetsområdet (EES)

The European Economic Area is a common market. Member states of the European Union as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway belong to the European Economic Area. See European Union (EU).

EU residence permit
EU-oleskelulupa
sv EU-uppehållstillstånd

A long-term resident’s EU residence permit that can be issued to a third-country national after he or she has resided for a continuous period of five years within the territory of the European Union. The permit is valid until further notice. An EU residence permit bears the letters P-EU. See third-country national.

European Union (EU)
fi Euroopan unioni (EU)
sv Europeiska unionen (EU)

The European Union is a political and economic union that has 28 European member states: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

expatriate Finn
fi ulkosuomalainen
sv utlandsfinländare

An expatriate Finn is a Finnish citizen or a person of Finnish origin who lives permanently outside Finland. See Finnish citizen, Finnish origin.

Finnish citizen
fi Suomen kansalainen
sv finsk medborgare

A person who by birth, or later by some other means, has acquired Finnish citizenship. See also naturalisation, citizenship, nationality.

Finnish citizen by birth
fi syntyperäinen Suomen kansalainen
sv infödd finsk medborgare

A person who has acquired Finnish citizenship by birth. See citizenship, nationality.

Finnish origin
fi suomalainen syntyperä
sv finländsk härkomst

Finnish origin refers to Finnish citizens, former Finnish citizens, descendants of persons who have acquired Finnish citizenship by birth and, in residence permit matters, also persons of Finnish ethnic origin. See also Finnish citizen, Finnish citizen by birth, citizenship, nationality, (ethnic) nationality, ethnic origin.

fixed-term residence permit
fi määräaikainen oleskelulupa
sv tidsbegränsat uppehållstillstånd

A residence permit that is valid for a certain time period. Fixed-term residence permits are issued for a continuous or temporary residence. See continuous residence permit, temporary residence permit. Cf. permanent residence permit.

foreign national
fi ulkomaalainen
sv utlänning

A person who is not a Finnish citizen. In legal language, also the word ‘alien’ is used. See Finnish citizen.

humanitarian protection
fi humanitaarinen suojelu
sv humanitärt skydd

Reason for granting a residence permit until 16 May 2016. It was possible to grant a residence permit on the basis of humanitarian protection when the requirements for granting asylum or providing subsidiary protection were not met, but the applicant could not return to his or her home country or country of former habitual residence because of an environmental catastrophe. Another possible reason was a bad security situation which might have been due to an armed conflict or a poor human rights situation. See also asylum, subsidiary protection.

immigrant; migrant
fi maahanmuuttaja
sv invandrare

A person who moves into a country (Finland). Cf. emigrant; migrant.

international protection
fi kansainvälinen suojelu
sv internationellt skydd

According to EU directives and the Finnish Aliens Act, international protection means refugee status or subsidiary protection status. See also refugee, subsidiary protection, humanitarian protection.

legal residence, legal stay
fi laillinen oleskelu
sv laglig vistelse

Legal stay means that a foreign national is residing in the country with appropriate and valid permits. The stay is legal on the basis of a valid visa, exemption from the visa requirement or a valid residence permit. A foreign national may reside legally in the country also while his or her residence permit or asylum application is being processed.

manifestly unfounded application
fi ilmeisen perusteeton hakemus
sv uppenbart ogrundad ansökan

An asylum application can be considered manifestly unfounded if 1) no serious violations of human rights or other grounds that are related to non-refoulement have been presented, or if the claims presented are clearly implausible, 2) the applicant obviously intends to abuse the asylum procedure or 3) the applicant comes from a safe country of origin where he or she may be returned. See also non-refoulement.

mission
fi edustusto
sv beskickning

On the website www.migri.fi, the word ‘mission’ usually refers to Finnish embassies and consulates.

naturalisation
fi kansalaistaminen
sv naturalisation

Naturalisation means granting citizenship on application. See citizenship, nationality.

non-refoulement
fi palautuskielto (non-refoulement)
sv förbud mot tillbakasändning, förbud mot återsändande

According to the principle of non-refoulement, no one may be sent back to an area where he or she could be subject to the death penalty, torture, persecution or other inhuman treatment or other treatment violating human dignity.

parentage principle, inheritance principle
fi periytymisperiaate
sv härstamningsprincipen

A principle according to which a child acquires the citizenship of his or her parent (ius sanguinis). The inheritance principle is a primary principle in the Finnish Nationality Act. Cf. birthplace principle.

passport
fi passi
sv pass

A travel document issued by the authorities of the home country or country of residence, which a foreign national must hold when entering Finland and residing in Finland (excluding citizens of the Nordic countries, among others).

permanent residence permit
fi pysyvä oleskelulupa
sv permanent uppehållstillstånd

A residence permit whose period of validity is not limited. The permit is valid until further notice and does not need to be renewed. A permanent residence permit bears the letter P. Cf. fixed-term residence permit.

prohibition of entry
fi maahantulokielto
sv inreseförbud

In a decision on refusal of entry or deportation, a foreign national may be prohibited from entering Finland. The prohibition may be valid for a fixed term or until further notice, and it applies either in the entire Schengen area or only in Finland. See also Schengen area.

quota refugee
fi kiintiöpakolainen
sv kvotflykting

A person considered a refugee by the UN refugee agency UNHCR who has been granted a residence permit under the refugee quota verified in the Budget. In recent years, the Finnish refugee quota has been 750–1050 people. See also emergency cases, refugee.

reception centre
fi vastaanottokeskus
sv förläggning

A facility where persons applying for international protection and beneficiaries of temporary protection are accommodated and that provides the reception services for them. Group homes and supported housing units intended for children are also reception centres. See also international protection, temporary protection.

reception unit
fi vastaanottoyksikkö
sv mottagningsenhet

Reception unit is a generic concept that covers all premises where asylum seekers are accommodated. A reception unit can refer to, for example, reception centres and temporary accommodation units. See also reception centre.

refugee
fi pakolainen
sv flykting

A foreign national who has a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of ethnic origin, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion. Refugee status is granted to a person who has been granted asylum by a state or who is considered a refugee by UNHCR. See also quota refugee, asylum seeker, asylum.

refugee sur place
fi sur place -pakolainen
sv flykting ”sur place”

A refugee whose need of protection has arisen after he or she has left his or her home country. See also refugee.

refugee travel document
fi pakolaisen matkustusasiakirja
sv resedokument för flykting

A travel document issued to a foreign national who has been granted refugee status. A refugee travel document is not an official identity document. See refugee. Cf. alien’s passport.

refusal of entry
fi käännyttäminen
sv avvisning

Procedure for removing a person from the country. When a foreign national has not been issued with a residence permit and a decision is made to remove the person from the country, he or she is refused entry into the country. Cf. deportation.

registered partnership
fi rekisteröity parisuhde
sv registrerat partnerskap

An official relationship between two persons of the same sex. A registered partnership is in many ways comparable to a marriage.

registration centre
fi järjestelykeskus
sv flyktingsluss

A registration centre is a unit for the reception and registration of newly arrived asylum seekers. After being registered, the asylum seekers move to reception centres. See also reception centre.

residence card
fi oleskelukortti
sv uppehållskort

A card issued by the Finnish Immigration Service, with which non-EU citizens who are family members of EU citizens can prove their right of residence in Finland. Biometric identifiers stored on the card’s chip include a facial image and two fingerprints. The residence card is not an official identity document. Cf. residence permit card. See EU citizen.

residence permit
fi oleskelulupa
sv uppehållstillstånd

A permit issued to a foreign national for a purpose other than tourism or a comparable short-term residence that entitles the holder to enter the country repeatedly and stay in the country. Residence permits are either fixed-term or permanent. A residence permit can be issued on the basis of, for example, work, self-employment, studies or family ties. See fixed-term residence permit, permanent residence permit. See also visa.

residence permit card
fi oleskelulupakortti
sv uppehållstillståndskort

A card issued by the Finnish Immigration Service or the police, with which non-EU citizens can prove their right of residence in Finland. Biometric identifiers stored on the card’s chip include a facial image and two fingerprints. The residence permit card is not an official identity document. Cf. residence card. See EU citizen.

returnee
fi paluumuuttaja
sv återflyttare

In residence permit matters, a returnee refers to a person moving to Finland who is of Finnish extraction or a person who otherwise has close ties to Finland (is a former Finnish citizen, a descendant of a person who is a Finnish citizen by birth or is otherwise Finnish in origin, for example an Ingrian Finn). See also Finnish citizen, Finnish citizen by birth, Finnish origin.

Schengen area
fi Schengen-alue
sv Schengenområdet

The Schengen area refers to the area of states applying the Schengen acquis. These states include Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.

sponsor
fi perheenkokoaja
sv anknytningsperson

A person residing in Finland whose family member applies for a residence permit in Finland on the basis of family ties in order to be together with the sponsor.

subsidiary protection
fi toissijainen suojelu
sv alternativt skydd

Reason for granting a residence permit. A residence permit is issued on the basis of subsidiary protection when the requirements for granting asylum are not met, but the applicant faces a risk of being subjected to the death penalty, execution, torture or other inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in his or her home country or country of former habitual residence. A permit may also be issued if the applicant is unable to return to his or her home country or country of former habitual residence without being exposed to serious and individual threat as a result of armed conflicts. See also asylum, international protection.

temporary protection
fi tilapäinen suojelu
sv tillfälligt skydd

Temporary protection may be given to foreign nationals who need international protection and who cannot return safely to their home country or country of permanent residence, because there has been a massive displacement of people in the country or its neighbouring areas as a result of an armed conflict, some other violent situation or an environmental disaster. Providing temporary protection requires that the need for protection may be considered to be of short duration.

temporary residence permit
fi tilapäinen oleskelulupa
sv tillfälligt uppehållstillstånd

A fixed-term residence permit. The permit is issued to a foreign national who does not intend to stay in Finland permanently. The permit must be renewed before the validity period expires. A temporary residence permit bears the letter B. Cf. continuous residence permit.

third-country national
fi kolmannen maan kansalainen
sv tredjelandsmedborgare

A foreign national who is not an EU citizen or a comparable person, i.e. a citizen of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway or Switzerland. See EU citizen or a comparable person, European Union (EU).

tracing
jäljittäminen
sv spårande

Tracing means establishing the location of the parents or a guardian of an unaccompanied minor or of a child victim of human trafficking who applies for international protection.

UNHCR
fi UNHCR
sv UNHCR

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The UN refugee agency.

visa
fi viisumi
sv visum, visering

A permit to enter the country, which is issued for a short and temporary stay of less than 90 days. The Finnish missions make decisions on issuing visas. See mission.

voluntary return
fi vapaaehtoinen paluu
sv frivillig återresa

In a decision on refusal of entry or deportation, which does not include a prohibition of entry, a third-country national is given a period of at least seven and a maximum of thirty days during which he or she can leave the country voluntarily. See refusal of entry, deportation, prohibition of entry, third-country national. See also assisted voluntary return.

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